Motor cognition encompasses how we understand our own movement, and how movement helps us to understand the world. Here, the role of the cerebellum is discussed in two processes that could be considered aspects of motor cognition: predicting movement outcomes and understanding the meaning of movements. Recent behavioral, anatomical, and neurophysiological findings related to these processes are discussed. There are data to support a cerebellar role in predicting movement outcomes, which could be used both for motor control and for distinguishing sensory inputs due to our own movements from external influences. The data for a cerebellar role in understanding the meaning of movement are mixed, although anatomical findings suggest that it probably has some influence that bears further study.