Cellulose has been widely used in the biomedical field. In this study, novel cellulose aerogels were firstly prepared in a NaOH-based solvent system by a facile casting method. Then amoxicillin was successfully loaded into cellulose aerogels with different loadings. The morphology and structure of the cellulose aerogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The drug release and antibacterial activities were also evaluated. The drug release results showed that cellulose aerogels have controlled amoxicillin release performance. In vitro antibacterial assay demonstrated that the cellulose aerogels exhibited excellent antibacterial activity with the amoxicillin dose-dependent activity. Therefore, the developed cellulose aerogels display controlled release behavior and efficient antibacterial performance, thus confirming their potential for biomedical applications.