BackgroundPhlebotomine sand flies are a medically important group of insects that is responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis. Surveillance plays a major role in vector control programmes through exploring species abundance, potential entomological risk and designing appropriate control measures. In field surveillance programmes of such nature, morphological identification of vector species is of paramount importance. However, in Sri Lanka, there is no published taxonomic key available for the identification of leishmaniasis vectors.MethodIdentification keys for both male and females of the sand flies recorded in Sri Lanka were developed using morphological features. Main identification features were compared with the original observation of specimens collected from surveys and the use of published literature. Photographic illustrations of morphological features are included with the intention of making the keys user-friendly for non-taxonomists.ResultsA total of 22 sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia reported in Sri Lanka from 1910 to 2019 are included in the present work.ConclusionThis simplified key, along with photographs taken from specimens would be beneficial to the health staff, entomologists and research staff who deal with leishmaniasis control programmes and vector-related studies.