For the development of artificial cell-like machinery, liposomes encapsulating cytoskeletons have drawn much recent attention. However, there has been no report showing isothermally reversible morphological changes of liposomes containing cytoskeletons. We succeeded in reversibly changing the shape of cell-sized giant vesicles by controlling the polymerization/depolymerization state of cytoskeletal microtubules that were encapsulated in the vesicles using pressure changes. The result indicates that it is possible to manipulate artificial cell models composed of molecules such as lipids and proteins. The findings obtained in this study will be helpful in clarifying the details of cooperation between cytoskeletal dynamics and morphogenesis of biological membranes and in improving the design and construction of further advanced artificial cell-like machinery, such as drug-delivery systems. In addition, the experimental system used in this study can be applied to research to elucidate the adaptive strategy of living organisms to external stimuli and extreme conditions such as osmotic stress and high-pressure environments like the deep sea.