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More Than Just a Spearhead: Diverse Functions of PAAR for Assembly and Delivery of Toxins of the Contractile Injection Systems

Authors
  • Zheng, Hao-Yu
  • Yang, Liang
  • Dong, Tao
Type
Published Article
Journal
mSystems
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Dec 07, 2021
Volume
6
Issue
6
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/msystems.01386-21
PMID: 34874771
PMCID: PMC8651079
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) belongs to the evolutionarily related group of contractile injection systems that employ a contractile outer sheath to inject a rigid spear-like inner tube into target bacterial and eukaryotic cells. The tip of the rigid tube is often decorated by a PAAR-repeat protein as a key structural component. Many members of the PAAR protein family can also have additional and diverse functions by serving as toxins for those with extended domains or as carriers for interacting toxins. A plethora of toxin modules or modules of unknown functions have been bioinformatically predicted to be associated with PAAR either as a fused domain or as an interacting partner, and yet only a small number of PAAR proteins have been studied, highlighting the exciting and dire need for future research to better understand the diverse PAAR-mediated functions.

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