An estimated 500,000 children in the remote and troubled northern governorates of Iraq received the polio vaccine, many for the first time in a house-to-house campaign during the National Immunization Days (NIDs) in March. High-level political leaders attended inauguration ceremonies in Ebril and Sulimaniyah. International supervision was kept to a minimum in some areas in the mountains because of insecurity there; the number of local authority supervisory teams was increased. Health authorities in the three governorates worked with vaccination teams to ensure they reached children in every village, including those in insecure areas bordering southeast Turkey. AFP surveillance has improved substantially: 12 out of a minimum target of 14 AFP cases have already been detected in 1999. Previous efforts to immunize children in the northern governorates have been frustrated by regional tensions and fighting.