The CCL-2 (-2518)G allele was not significantly associated with SLE in the whole study sample (p = 0.07). Among Caucasians, but not African Americans, G allele carriers had significantly increased risk of SLE (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.8-9.6, p < 0.0001). Genotype was not associated with nephritis, CAC, or MCP-1 concentrations when all patients or all controls were considered; however, among recently diagnosed patients, G allele carriers had significantly higher MCP-1 concentrations than AA homozygotes (p = 0.02). SLE patients had higher MCP-1 concentrations than controls (p < 0.0001), African American patients had higher concentrations than Caucasian patients (p = 0.006), and patients with nephritis had higher concentrations than those without nephritis (p = 0.02). Although not associated with CAC, MCP-1 concentrations were significantly positively correlated with Hcy. CONCLUSION. CCL-2 A(-2518)G genotype is a significant risk factor for SLE among Caucasians but not African Americans, suggesting that genetically mandated differences in MCP-1 expression contribute to SLE etiology in the former. The positive correlation between MCP-1 and Hcy concentrations is consistent with the hypothesis that active inflammation and hyperhomocysteinemia are etiologically linked.