Recent advances in neurogastroenterology have extended and refined our knowledge on the roles monoamines play in physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine noradrenaline, as the primary transmitter of postganglionic sympathetic neurons, orchestrates motility and secretory reflexes and controls arterial perfusion as well as immune functions. The catecholamine dopamine is produced by a subpopulation of enteric neurons which possibly use it as transmitter. Serotonin, largely produced by enterochromaffin cells and to a small extent by enteric neurons profoundly affects gut motility, enteric neuron development and is also involved in immunomodulation. However, its mode of action and the relative contribution of non-neuronal versus neuronal serotonin was recently subject to debate again. Histamine, although entirely of non-neuronal origin, is pivotal for gastrointestinal neuroimmunomodulation besides its paracrine effect in gastric HCl production.