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Monitoring Water Quality in Lien Son Irrigation System of Vietnam and Identification of Potential Pollution Sources by Using Multivariate Analysis

  • Lap, Bui Quoc1
  • Nam, Nguyen Hoai1
  • Anh, Bui Thi Kim1, 2
  • Linh, Trinh Thi Thuy3
  • Quang, Le Xuan3
  • Toan, Vu Duc1
  • Hang, Bui Thi Thanh1
  • Babel, Sandhya4
  • Phan, Thi-Thu-Hong5
  • 1 Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
  • 2 Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
  • 3 Institute for Water and Environment, Vietnam Academy for Water Resources, 171 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
  • 4 Thammasat University-Rangsit Campus, 99 Moo 18, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand , Pathum Thani (Thailand)
  • 5 Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
Published Article
Water Air & Soil Pollution
Publication Date
Apr 27, 2021
DOI: 10.1007/s11270-021-05137-9
Springer Nature


The objective of this study is to evaluate the water quality of the Lien Son irrigation system in Vietnam and identify the critical pollutants that affect the system’s water quality. Firstly, the water quality at fifteen locations distributed along the main Lien Son drainage and irrigation canals was monitored in the dry season (from January to March) for 3 consecutive years (2018, 2019, and 2020) to collect nine physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters. And then, principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were applied to extract and identify the critical pollutants which helps to preliminarily detect the potential pollution sources to the irrigation system. Results of PCA and FA showed the principal groups of pollutants which had a significant influence on the water quality of the system. Sampling locations LS7 and LS8 had the heaviest pollution. The primary factors that influenced the pollution of the system were organic matter (COD and BOD5), nutrients (N-NH4+\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$_{4}^{+}$\end{document} and P-PO43−\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$_{4}^{3-}$\end{document}), sediment transport (turbidity and TSS), and coliform. These factors are usually associated with the sources of domestic wastewaters and agricultural runoff from the vicinity. This suggested that urgent actions should be taken to control domestic wastewaters and agricultural runoff from the vicinity so that they could not deteriorate the water quality of the system.

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