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Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticide residues in selected herbal medicinal products in Ghana

Authors
  • Opuni, Kwabena F. M.1
  • Asare-Nkansah, Samuel2
  • Osei-Fosu, Paul3
  • Akonnor, Abraham2
  • Bekoe, Samuel O.2
  • Dodoo, Alexander N. O.3
  • 1 University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana , Legon (Ghana)
  • 2 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana , Kumasi (Ghana)
  • 3 Ghana Standards Authority, Accra, Ghana , Accra (Ghana)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jul 05, 2021
Volume
193
Issue
8
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-021-09261-1
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Yellow

Abstract

The high patronage of herbal medicinal products in Ghana for the treatment of diverse disease conditions raises concerns about patient safety, given that much of the raw materials for production are obtained from the wild or farmlands potentially exposed to varied agrochemical residues. Therefore, the work sought to investigate the contamination of herbal medicinal products with pesticide residues and assess the potential risk posed to patients. As a result, validated gas chromatography with mass spectrometry as a detector was used to determine forty-two pesticides in thirty herbal medicinal products. The performance parameters of the method such as linearity, accuracy, and precision were found as acceptable. Pesticide residues such as chlorpyrifos and/or bifenthrin were found in 4/30 herbal medicinal products. Specifically, 3/30 herbal medicinal products contained only one pesticide, while 1/30 was contaminated with both pesticide residues. The levels of pesticide residue contamination ranged between 2.5 and 5.0 µg/kg. The acute hazard quotient and chronic hazard quotient for the two pesticide residues were evaluated and ranged between 0.21 and 0.92% and between 8.21 × 10−4 and 5.88 × 10−3%. The detected pesticide residue levels are below the maximum residue limit values, which may not cause acute and chronic health risks due to intake of the selected herbal medicinal product. Nevertheless, patient safety and potential public health risk can be reduced by regular monitoring, and regulation of pesticide residue levels in herbal medicinal products.

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