Tamping and ballast wear, due to dynamic stresses, lead to frequent and costly maintenance operations. To mitigate the impact, an innovative track structure combining a bituminous (asphalt concrete) layer below the ballast has been built on the Bretagne-Pays de la Loire High-Speed Line (BPL HSL). The track is intended to reduce the amplitude of the accelerations produced by passing High-Speed Trains (HST) which are the main reason for the settlement of ballast. BPL HSL includes 105 km of asphalt concrete sub-layer below the ballast and 77 km of granular sub-layer. In order to study the dynamic responses of these different structures, some track sections have been instrumented with anchored deflectometers, accelerometers, strain gauges and temperature probes. The aim of this paper is to present the results achieved after four years of commercial traffic. The data processing methods developed for this acquisition phase and the measurements of the substructure deflection, the vertical accelerations under ballast, and the vertical and horizontal strain of the various sections were presented. Deflection measurements, vertical strains and vertical accelerations peaks at the top of the sub-layer are compared between the granular and the bituminous track structures and shows that there is no evolution of the measurements during the four years of monitoring. The study clearly demonstrated that the presence of the bituminous layer in the structure reduces the acceleration levels under the ballast that cause its deterioration. Such conclusions suggest that a bituminous sub-layer might contribute to lower track maintenance needs over the service life of the line, decreasing operational costs and increasing capacity.