Molindone hydrochloride, a dihydroindolone neuroleptic, is structurally distinct from other classes of neuroleptics. Molindone exhibits many similarities to other neuroleptics, including dopamine receptor blockade, antipsychotic efficacy, and extrapyramidal side effects. Despite these similarities, molindone also has atypical properties and inhibits the enzyme monoamine oxidase in vitro and in vivo. Several studies have shown that molindone causes less dopamine receptor supersensitivity than other neuroleptics and thus may be less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia. It also appears to have a greater effect on mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine neurons than on those in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Clinically, molindone has a tendency to cause weight loss and may have less effect on seizure threshold than conventional antipsychotic agents. The authors review the laboratory and clinical data on molindone and discuss the relevance of atypical research findings to the clinical characteristics of this antipsychotic agent.