Molecular changes associated with response to powdery mildew (PM) caused by Erysiphe necator have been largely explored in Vitis vinifera cultivars, but little is known on transcriptional and metabolic modifications following application of resistance elicitors against this disease. In this study, the whole transcriptome sequencing, and hormone and metabolite analyses were combined to dissect long-term defense mechanisms induced by molecular reprogramming events in PM-infected ‘Moscato’ and ‘Nebbiolo’ leaves treated with three resistance inducers: acibenzolar-S-methyl, potassium phosphonate, and laminarin. Although all compounds were effective in counteracting the disease, acibenzolar-S-methyl caused the most intense transcriptional modifications in both cultivars. These involved a strong down-regulation of photosynthesis and energy metabolism and changes in carbohydrate accumulation and partitioning that most likely shifted the plant growth-defense trade-off towards the establishment of disease resistance processes. It was also shown that genotype-associated metabolic signals significantly affected the cultivar defense machinery. Indeed, ‘Nebbiolo’ and ‘Moscato’ built up different defense strategies, often enhanced by the application of a specific elicitor, which resulted in either reinforcement of early defense mechanisms (e.g., epicuticular wax deposition and overexpression of pathogenesis-related genes in ‘Nebbiolo’), or accumulation of endogenous hormones and antimicrobial compounds (e.g., high content of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and viniferin in ‘Moscato’).