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Molecular Origins of Polymorphism in Cocoa Butter

Authors
  • Ghazani, Saeed M.
  • Marangoni, Alejandro G.
Type
Published Article
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Mar 25, 2021
Volume
12
Pages
567–590
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-food-070620-022551
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Cocoa butter displays complex crystallization behavior and six crystal polymorphic forms. Although the crystal structure of cocoa butter has been studied extensively, the molecular interactions between cocoa butter triacylglycerols in relation to polymorphic transformations from metastable forms (forms III and IV) to stable crystal forms (forms V and VI) remain largely unknown. In this review, the triclinic polymorphism and melting profiles of the major triacylglycerols in cocoa butter—POP, POS, and SOS—are reviewed, and their binary and ternary phase behaviors in metastable (pseudoβ′) and stable (β2) crystal forms are discussed. We also attempt to clarify how the transformation of cocoa butter from form IV to V, as a critical step in the tempering of chocolate, is controlled by POS interactions with both POP and SOS. Moreover, we show how the crystal forms V and VI of cocoa butter are templated by crystal forms β3 and β1 of POS, respectively.

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