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Molecular mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease and the impact of physical exercise with advancements in therapeutic approaches.

Authors
  • Siddappaji, Kiran Kumar1
  • Gopal, Shubha1
  • 1 Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysuru, 570006, Karnataka, India. , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
AIMS neuroscience
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2021
Volume
8
Issue
3
Pages
357–389
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3934/Neuroscience.2021020
PMID: 34183987
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common, severe neurodegenerative brain disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-beta plaques, neurofibrillary tangles in the brain causing neural disintegration, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal death leading to dementia. Although many US-FDA-approved drugs like Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galantamine are available in the market, their consumption reduces only the symptoms of the disease but fails in potency to cure the disease. This disease affects many individuals with aging. Combating the disease tends to be very expensive. This review focuses on biochemical mechanisms in the neuron both at normal and AD state with relevance to the tau hypothesis, amyloid hypothesis, the risk factors influencing dementia, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation altogether integrated with neurodegeneration. A brief survey is carried out on available biomarkers in the diagnosis of the disease, drugs used for the treatment, and the challenges in approaching therapeutic targets in inhibiting the disease pathologies. This review conjointly assesses the demerits with the inefficiency of drugs to reach targets, their side effects, and toxicity. Optimistically, this review directs on the advantageous strategies in using nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems to cross the blood-brain barrier for improving the efficacy of drugs combined with a novel neuronal stem cell therapy approach. Determinately, this review aims at the natural, non-therapeutic healing impact of physical exercise on different model organisms and the effect of safe neuromodulation treatments using repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) in humans to control the disease pathologies prominent in enhancing the synaptic function. © 2021 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press.

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