Cryptococcosis, a mycosis presenting mostly as meningoencephalitis, affecting predominantly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans . The genetic variation of 48 C. neoformans isolates, recovered from 20 HIV-positive people in Lima, Peru, during the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, was studied retrospectively. The mating type of the isolates was determined by PCR, and the serotype by agglutination and CAP59 -restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Genetic diversity was assessed by URA5 -RFLP, PCR-fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). All isolates were mating type alpha, with 39 molecular type VNI, seven VNII, corresponding to C. neoformans var. grubii serotype A, and two VNIII AD hybrids. Overall, the cryptococcal population from HIV-positive people in Lima shows a low degree of genetic diversity. In most patients with persistent cryptococcal infection, the same genotype was recovered during the follow-up. In four patients with relapse and one with therapy failure, different genotypes were found in isolates from the re-infection and from the isolate recovered at the end of the treatment. In one patient, two genotypes were found in the first cryptococcosis episode. This study contributes data from Peru to the ongoing worldwide population genetic analysis of Cryptococcus .