A recent outbreak of erythroderma in young children in an Albanian hospital was investigated. The etiology was not established, but Staphylococcus haemolyticus was frequently isolated from the affected children and from staff working in the same unit. Possible relationships among the isolates were investigated by using classical techniques (biotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and extrachromosomal DNA pattern) and by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of total DNA. Control isolates of proven pathogenicity from hospitalized patients in Lyon, France were subjected to the same procedures. Distinct REA patterns were obtained after digestion with two enzymes in 7 of 10 isolates from five affected children. Six distinct patterns were observed in nine isolates from six staff members; two REA patterns from patient isolates and two from staff members were identical, and these were distinguishable by the other markers examined. Only two different REA patterns were found in the pathogenic control isolates despite the use of a third additional enzyme. Again, the isolates with the same REA patterns could be distinguished by their plasmid profile or antimicrobial resistance profile. REA of total DNA used in combination with other markers indicated that the Albanian isolates differed considerably, whereas the French pathogenic isolates showed little variability.