A differential hybridization strategy was used to clone genes associated with aflatoxin biosynthesis. A genomic library, formed between nuclear DNA and the pUC19 plasmid, was screened with three different cDNA probes by the colony hybridization procedure. Nineteen clones were selected; all were positively correlated with and presumably enriched with genes associated with aflatoxin production. Some of these clones were further characterized by using them as probes in Northern (RNA blot) hybridizations. Five clones hybridized strongly with some polyadenylated RNAs formed during the transition to or during idiophase when aflatoxin was produced. However, little or no corresponding hybridization occurred with polyadenylated RNAs formed in early and mid-log growth phase. Two of the clones were further used as probes to hybridize with polyadenylated RNAs formed under aflatoxin-permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Hybridization occurred with RNA species formed under the permissive temperature only.