Composite lymphomas are rare associations of two distinct lymphoma types at the same anatomical site. Reporting of such cases is important because they pose major biologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic dilemmas. In this study, we describe the third reported case of mantle cell and follicular lymphoma. We performed accurate immunohistochemical and molecular studies to define the mono- vs biclonal nature of this neoplasm. We used both manual and LASER-capture microdissection combined to multiple molecular approaches for clonality determination, including detection of heavy and light chain recombination, as well as presence of kappa/Kde recombination and sequence analysis. By immunohistochemistry and FISH, we confirmed the presence of two distinct lymphoma types characterized by specific translocations [namely, t(11;14) and t(14;18)], while we demonstrated two distinct and not clonally related cell populations by molecular techniques. The light chain approach, and particularly the kappa and kappa/Kde recombination detection, proved very useful for solving the clonality issue.