We assessed the molecular characterization of 96 clinical isolates of S. cerevisiae from a Spanish medical institution and we compared them with 6 non-clinical strains isolated from wine, beer and bread and 1 S. boulardii strain collected from a commercial preparation. The strains were subjected to HinfI mtDNA restriction analysis and PCR amplification of delta sequences. Although both techniques are appropriate for routine clinical analysis, that based on PCR turned out to be the most discriminating. This study, apart from providing tools for clinical application, deals with the relationships between clinical and non-clinical strains. The two baker's yeasts analysed shared mtDNA and PCR patterns with a group of 31 clinical isolates. An exogenous entry of a strain was also reflected in the case of 19 clinical isolates and the therapeutic strain S. boulardii. Both baker's yeasts and S. boulardii were identified respectively among 32.3% and 19.8% of the clinical isolates and there seemed to be a connection between their ability to colonize humans and their ability to cause vaginal infection. The rest of food isolates were not grouped with clinical strains.