Introduction Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is one of the most threatening to domestic and wild dogs. Material and Methods A total of 132 clinical samples were isolated from domestic dogs with diarrhoea from Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, and Anhui provinces from 2016 to 2017, and 56 were positive for CPV-2 by PCR. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the isolate sequences incorporating 53 non-Chinese reference strains. Results VP2 sequences showed the strains mainly to be new CPV-2a/2b and CPV-2c genotypes. The Ala5Gly, Phe267Tyr, Ser297Ala, Tyr324Ile, Gln370Arg, Asn426Asp or Asn426Glu, and Thr440Ala sites in the VP2 protein antigenic region were found to have high mutation rates. The VP2 tertiary structural model shows that the change at these mutation points is a factor for the changes in the protein structure. Significant differences between the Central Chinese strains and others were found, indicating that evolution is geographically related and extended in major regions. The homology between the identified strains confirmed their relationship. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the common genotypes in the same clusters differ slightly in homology and evolutionary history. Conclusion This epidemiological study enriches the available data and serves as an important reference for studies on the evolution of CPV and selection of vaccines in China.