A review of the data on the modulatory action of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP), the main co-transmitter with acetylcholine, and adenosine, the final ATP metabolite in the synaptic cleft, on neuromuscular transmission is presented. The effects of these endogenous modulators on pre- and post-synaptic processes are discussed. The contribution of purines to the processes of quantal and non-quantal secretion of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, as well as the influence of the postsynaptic effects of ATP and adenosine on the functioning of cholinergic receptors, are evaluated. As usual, the P2-receptor-mediated influence is minimal under physiological conditions, but it becomes very important in some pathophysiological situations such as hypothermia, stress, or ischemia. There are some data demonstrating the same in neuromuscular transmission. It is suggested that the role of endogenous purines is primarily to provide a safety factor for the efficiency of cholinergic neuromuscular transmission.