Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the medicinal plant Duguetia furfuracea were assessed using SMART/wing and ring-X-loss tests. For the ring-X-loss test, 2- to 3-day-old Drosophila melanogaster ring-X-lineage males and virgin ywsn³ females received D. furfuracea infusion at doses of 0.085, 0.042, or 0.014 g/mL for 24 h. We found that D. furfuracea did not produce any mutagenic effects in D. melanogaster germinative cells. The somatic cells of D. melanogaster were analyzed using the SMART/wing test involving three lineages - mwh, flr³, and ORR - and the same doses of D. furfuracea infusion employed in the ring-X-loss test, as well as 20 mM urethane. The results of both standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses showed absence of mutagenic activity of D. furfuracea. In contrast, in both ST and HB crosses, we observed a modulatory effect of D. furfuracea against the genotoxic activity of urethane.