BackgroundTo evaluate the clinical outcomes and the duration required for the sperm to return to the ejaculate after a modified single-armed 2-suture longitudinal intussusception vasoepididymostomy (SA-LIVE).MethodsFrom March 2015 to December 2018, 134 patients with epididymal obstruction azoospermia underwent the modified single-armed vasoepididymostomy at Shanghai General Hospital. The outcomes and clinical findings were documented and evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 17 (range: 3–36) months.ResultsPatency was assessed by the return of sperm in the ejaculate. The overall patency rate was 55.2%, and the patency rates were 58.9, 40.7, 36.4, and 58.9% for bilateral surgery, unilateral surgery, proximal anastomosis, and distal anastomosis, respectively. The average time to achieve patency was 4.11 ± 2.74 months. In the first 6 months, 87.8% (65/74) patency patients reported sperm in the ejaculate. The overall pregnancy rate was 40.9% (29/66) at the follow-up of 3–36 months, and the natural pregnancy rate was 30.3% (20/66). The natural pregnancy rate was 32.1% post-bilateral surgery and 33.3% for the site of distal anastomosis; surprisingly, it was 0% for the site of proximal anastomosis.ConclusionModified SA-LIVE is safe and may achieve favorable patency and pregnancy rates. When double-armed sutures are not accessible, single-armed may be preferable. The expected patency time was within 1 year. Moreover, because of the low natural pregnancy rate for proximal anastomosis, sperm banking is preferred to SA-LIVE.