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Modifications to the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 for MODFLOW-2005.

Authors
  • Reimann, Thomas
  • Birk, Steffen
  • Rehrl, Christoph
  • Shoemaker, W Barclay
Type
Published Article
Journal
Ground Water
Publisher
Wiley (Blackwell Publishing)
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2012
Volume
50
Issue
1
Pages
144–148
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00805.x
PMID: 21371024
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

As a result of rock dissolution processes, karst aquifers exhibit highly conductive features such as caves and conduits. Within these structures, groundwater flow can become turbulent and therefore be described by nonlinear gradient functions. Some numerical groundwater flow models explicitly account for pipe hydraulics by coupling the continuum model with a pipe network that represents the conduit system. In contrast, the Conduit Flow Process Mode 2 (CFPM2) for MODFLOW-2005 approximates turbulent flow by reducing the hydraulic conductivity within the existing linear head gradient of the MODFLOW continuum model. This approach reduces the practical as well as numerical efforts for simulating turbulence. The original formulation was for large pore aquifers where the onset of turbulence is at low Reynolds numbers (1 to 100) and not for conduits or pipes. In addition, the existing code requires multiple time steps for convergence due to iterative adjustment of the hydraulic conductivity. Modifications to the existing CFPM2 were made by implementing a generalized power function with a user-defined exponent. This allows for matching turbulence in porous media or pipes and eliminates the time steps required for iterative adjustment of hydraulic conductivity. The modified CFPM2 successfully replicated simple benchmark test problems.

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