Particulate bone augmentation is an established clinical alternative to regenerate bone. However, in regions of poor bone quality or previously infected sites, the clinical outcomes are more inconsistent. For that purpose, peptides have been added to particulate materials in an attempt to render them with antibacterial properties or to improve their osseoconductivity. For instance, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) has been studied to decrease the division rate of Streptococcus mutans. Also, the addition of a specific short amino acid sequence peptide derived from type I collagen (P-15) to the bone substitutes has been introduced in an attempt to increase its osseoconductivity. The present study hypothesized that xenogeneic graft materials with and without CSP would present improved host-to-biomaterial response when used in combination with P-15. Particulate graft materials with and without P-15, OsteoGraf with CSP and OsteoGraf, were implanted in an 8-mm rabbit calvarial defect for 4 weeks, and thereafter, histological and histomorphometrical evaluation was performed. The results showed that both OsteoGraf and CSP groups with the addition of P-15 induced bone growth towards the center of the defect. Furthermore, the addition of CSP to Osteograf showed a tendency to increase its osteoconductivity when combined with P-15. The results of the current study suggested that P-15 had some impact on osteogenesis; however, the effect differed between different bone substitute materials. Further investigation is necessary to clarify its effectiveness when used in combination with bone substitutes.