Adolescent alcohol misuse is a growing global health concern. Substantial research suggests that parents have an important role in reducing young people's risk for early initiation of alcohol and alcohol-related harms. To facilitate research translation, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies examining the range of modifiable parenting factors that are associated with adolescent alcohol initiation and levels of later use/misuse. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase. Studies were included if they (i) used a longitudinal design; (ii) were published in English; (iii) measured any modifiable parenting factors in adolescence as predictors; (iv) assessed any alcohol-related outcome variables in adolescence and/or alcohol-related problems in adulthood; and (v) had a follow-up interval of at least 1 year. Parental behaviours were categorized into 12 parenting factors. Stouffer's P analyses were used to determine whether the associations between variables were reliable; when there were sufficient studies available, meta-analyses were also conducted to estimate mean effect sizes. Based on 131 studies, three risk factors (parental provision of alcohol, favourable parental attitudes towards alcohol use and parental drinking) and four protective factors (parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support and parental involvement) were identified as longitudinal predictors of both alcohol initiation and levels of later alcohol use/misuse, based on their significant results in both Stouffer's P analyses and meta-analyses. The mean effect sizes were mainly small (rs = -0.224 to 0.263). Risk of adolescent alcohol misuse is positively associated with parental provision of alcohol, favourable parental attitudes towards alcohol use and parental drinking. It is negatively associated with parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support and parental involvement. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.