Problems of hygienic reliability of the drinking water use in regions of the Russian Federation are observed in the article. The optimization of the water use was shown must be based on the bearing in mind of regional peculiarities of the shaping of water quality of groundwater and surface sources of the water use, taking into account of the effectiveness of regional water protection programs, programs for water treatment, coordination of the activity of economic entities and oversight bodies in the management of water quality on the basis of socio-hygienic monitoring. Regional problems requiring hygienic justification and accounting, include such issues as complex hydrological, hydrogeological, climatic and geographical conditions, pronouncement of the severity of anthropogenic pollution of sources of water supply, natural conditions of the shaping of water quality, efficiency of the water treatment. There is need in the improvement of the problems of the water quality monitoring, including with the use of computer technology, which allows to realize regional hygienic monitoring and spatial-temporal analysis of the water quality, to model the water quality management, to predict conditions of the water use by population in regions taking into account peculiarities of the current health situation. In the article there is shown the practicability of the so-called complex concept of multiple barriers suggesting the combined use of chemical oxidation and physical methods of the preparation of drinking water. It is required the further development of legislation for the protection of water bodies from pollution with the bigging up the status of sanitary protection zones; timely revision of the regulatory framework, establishing sanitary-epidemiological requirements to potable water and drinking water supply. The problem of the provision of the population with safe drinking water requires complex solution within the framework of the implementation of target programs adopted at the Federal and regional levels.