We present a detailed derivation of a microscopic theory for the glass transition of a liquid enclosed between two parallel walls relying on a mode-coupling approximation. This geometry lacks translational invariance perpendicular to the walls, which implies that the density profile and the density-density correlation function depends explicitly on the distances to the walls. We discuss the residual symmetry properties in slab geometry and introduce a symmetry adapted complete set of two-point correlation functions. Since the currents naturally split into components parallel and perpendicular to the walls the mathematical structure of the theory differs from the established mode-coupling equations in bulk. We prove that the equations for the nonergodicity parameters still display a covariance property similar to bulk liquids.