This article introduces the EU Horizon 2020 research project MIX-UP, "Mixed plastics biodegradation and upcycling using microbial communities". The project focuses on changing the traditional linear value chain of plastics to a sustainable, biodegradable based one. Plastic mixtures contain five of the top six fossil-based recalcitrant plastics [polyethylene (PE), polyurethane (PUR), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS)], along with upcoming bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polylactate (PLA) will be used as feedstock for microbial transformations. Consecutive controlled enzymatic and microbial degradation of mechanically pre-treated plastics wastes combined with subsequent microbial conversion to polymers and value-added chemicals by mixed cultures. Known plastic-degrading enzymes will be optimised by integrated protein engineering to achieve high specific binding capacities, stability, and catalytic efficacy towards a broad spectrum of plastic polymers under high salt and temperature conditions. Another focus lies in the search and isolation of novel enzymes active on recalcitrant polymers. MIX-UP will formulate enzyme cocktails tailored to specific waste streams and strives to enhance enzyme production significantly. In vivo and in vitro application of these cocktails enable stable, self-sustaining microbiomes to convert the released plastic monomers selectively into value-added products, key building blocks, and biomass. Any remaining material recalcitrant to the enzymatic activities will be recirculated into the process by physicochemical treatment. The Chinese–European MIX-UP consortium is multidisciplinary and industry-participating to address the market need for novel sustainable routes to valorise plastic waste streams. The project's new workflow realises a circular (bio)plastic economy and adds value to present poorly recycled plastic wastes where mechanical and chemical plastic recycling show limits.