Microchimerism in lung allograft recipients was studied in the autopsies of nine female recipients of male lung grafts who had survived for more than 1 month after transplantation. Using a Y chromosome-specific probe tissues were studied for the presence of donor cells that had migrated beyond the graft itself. They were quantitated by cell counting to give absolute numbers of cells per organ volume. While donor cells were disseminated throughout the body, their numbers were small. These absolute numbers should be studied in a larger group of recipients to determine if they correlate with prognosis and the development of bronchiolitis obliterans.