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Mitochondrion-targeted photosensitizer enhances the photodynamic effect-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

Authors
  • Peng, Tsung-I
  • Chang, Cheng-Jen
  • Guo, Mei-Jin
  • Wang, Yu-Huai
  • Yu, Jau-Song
  • Wu, Hong-Yueh
  • Jou, Mei-Jie
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Publication Date
May 01, 2005
Volume
1042
Pages
419–428
Identifiers
PMID: 15965088
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Recently, the mitochondrion has been considered as a novel pharmacological target for anticancer therapy due to its crucial role involved in arbitrating cell apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that 488-nm laser irradiation induced a specific mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) formation and apoptotic death. In this study, we used a second generation of photosensitizers, the benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA). We investigated specifically mechanisms at the mitochondrial level for BPD-MA coupled with 690-nm laser irradiation, the photodynamic effect (PDE) of BPD-MA, using conventional and laser scanning imaging microscopy in intact C6 glioma cells. We demonstrated BPD-MA localized mainly in the mitochondrial area. The phototoxicity induced by 1-10 J 690-nm laser irradiation was minor as compared to that induced by 488-nm laser irradiation. Unlike other mitochondrion-targeted photosensitizers, the dark toxicity induced by BPD-MA (0.05-5 mg/mL, effective doses used for the PDE) was relatively low. Nevertheless, the PDE of BPD-MA using 0.5 mg/mL coupled with 5J 690-nm irradiation induced profound and rapid (< 1 min) mitochondrial swelling, mROS formation, and severe plasma membrane blebbing as compared to that induced by 488-nm laser irradiation (< 10 min). Later, the PDE of BPD-MA resulted in positive propidium iodide cell-death stain and positive TUNEL apoptotic nuclear stain and DNA laddering. Finally, the PDT of BPD-MA also instantaneously promoted the mitochondrion to diminish its covalent binding with a mitochondrial marker, MitoTracker Green. We conclude that the PDT of BPD-MA targeted primarily and compellingly the mitochondrion to induce effective mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and thus may serve as a powerful photosensitizer for clinical cancer therapy.

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