A number of mitochondrial proteins have been identified in Leishmania sp. and Trypanosoma brucei that may be involved in U-insertion/deletion RNA editing. Only a few of these have yet been characterized sufficiently to be able to assign functional names for the proteins in both species, and most have been denoted by a variety of species-specific and laboratory-specific operational names, leading to a terminology confusion both within and outside of this field. In this review, we summarize the present status of our knowledge of the orthologous and unique putative editing proteins in both species and the functional motifs identified by sequence analysis and by experimentation. An online Supplemental sequence database (http://126.96.36.199/proteins/protsmini1.asp) is also provided as a research resource.