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Mitochondria: Their relevance during oocyte ageing.

Authors
  • van der Reest, Jiska1
  • Nardini Cecchino, Gustavo2
  • Haigis, Marcia C1
  • Kordowitzki, Paweł3
  • 1 Department of Cell Biology, Blavatnik Institute, Ludwig Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  • 2 Federal University of São Paulo, Department of Gynecology, Rua Napoleão de Barros 632, 04024-002, Vila Clementino, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 3 Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Bydgoska 7 Street, 10-243, Olsztyn, Poland; Institute for Veterinary Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Poland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Ageing research reviews
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2021
Volume
70
Pages
101378–101378
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101378
PMID: 34091076
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The oocyte is recognised as the largest cell in mammalian species and other multicellular organisms. Mitochondria represent a high proportion of the cytoplasm in oocytes and mitochondrial architecture is different in oocytes than in somatic cells, characterised by a rounder appearance and fragmented network. Although the number of mitochondria per oocyte is higher than in any other mammalian cell, their number and activity decrease with advancing age. Mitochondria integrate numerous processes essential for cellular function, such as metabolic processes related to energy production, biosynthesis, and waste removal, as well as Ca2+ signalling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Further, mitochondria are responsible for the cellular adaptation to different types of stressors such as oxidative stress or DNA damage. When these stressors outstrip the adaptive capacity of mitochondria to restore homeostasis, it leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Decades of studies indicate that mitochondrial function is multifaceted, which is reflected in the oocyte, where mitochondria support numerous processes during oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development. Dysregulation of mitochondrial processes has been consistently reported in ageing and age-related diseases. In this review, we describe the functions of mitochondria as bioenergetic powerhouses and signal transducers in oocytes, how dysfunction of mitochondrial processes contributes to reproductive ageing, and whether mitochondria could be targeted to promote oocyte rejuvenation. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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