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Mismatch between sample diluent and eluent: Maintaining integrity of gradient peaks using in silico approaches.

Authors
  • Gritti, Fabrice1
  • Gilar, Martin2
  • Hill, Jason2
  • 1 Waters Corporation, 34 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757, USA. Electronic address: [email protected]
  • 2 Waters Corporation, 34 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of chromatography. A
Publication Date
Dec 20, 2019
Volume
1608
Pages
460414–460414
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460414
PMID: 31416623
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The mismatch of elution strength between the sample diluent and the eluent causes undesirable peak deformations for large sample volumes in gradient liquid chromatography. The solution to that problem consists in diluting the sample solution in a weak solvent. But the minimum dilution factor has to be determined by the user given some performance objectives. In silico approaches are applied in this work to find such adequate dilution factors. Two calculations methods are proposed for the prediction of peak distortions. The first comprehensive method is based on solving numerically the mass balance equations for all the analytes and the strong solvent. An excellent agreement between the experimental and the calculated gradient chromatograms is observed (sample diluent: acetonitrile/water, 50/50, v/v; injection volume: 15 μL; linear gradient: 5%-95% acetonitrile during 3 min) for five compounds (acetanilide, coumarin, benzoin, bi-naphthol, and dibutylphthalate) injected into a 2.1 × 50 mm column packed with 1.7 μm XBridge-C18 particles. This first method happens to be highly time-consuming and impractical for common users. Experimental work and calculation times are then minimized by applying a second method based on the basics of retention and dispersion of injected pulses. Despite being less accurate than the first method, the agreement between the experimental and calculated peak width remains physically meaningful allowing the experimenter to rapidly guess the required sample dilution factor for any combination of injected volume and strong solvent concentration in the sample solution. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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