Soil microbes play important roles in plant growth and in the biogeochemical cycling of earth's elements. However, the structure and functions of the microbial community associated with the growth of second-generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, remain unclear. Thus, in this study, the composition and function of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with Miscanthus cultivation were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing combined with PICRUSt and FUNGUIld analyses. The results of community composition and diversity index analyses showed that Miscanthus cultivation significantly altered the bacterial and fungal community composition and reduced bacterial and fungal diversity. In addition, Miscanthus cultivation increased the soil organic matter (SOM) and total nitrogen (TN) contents. The correlation analysis between microbial community composition and environmental factors indicated that SOM and TN were the most important factors affecting bacterial and fungal communities. Miscanthus cultivation could enrich the abundances of Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Luteibacter, Bradyrhizobium, Phenylobacterium and other common plant-promoting bacteria, while also increasing Cladophialophora, Hymenula, Magnaporthe, Mariannaea, etc., which predicted corresponded to the saprotrophic, plant pathogenic, and pathotrophic trophic modes. The PICRUSt predictive analysis indicated that Miscanthus cultivation altered the metabolic capabilities of bacterial communities, including the metabolism of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycle. In addition, FUNGUIld analysis indicated that Miscanthus cultivation altered the fungal trophic mode. The effects of Miscanthus on the communities and function of bacteria and fungi varied among Miscanthus species. Miscanthus specie Xiangdi NO 1 had the greatest impact on soil bacterial and fungal communities, whereas Miscanthus specie Wujiemang NO 1 had the greatest impact on soil bacteria and fungi functions. The results of this study provide a reference for the composition and function of microbial communities during the growth of Miscanthus.