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Mircrining the injured heart with stem cell-derived exosomes: an emerging strategy of cell-free therapy

Authors
  • Haider, Khawaja Husnain1, 2
  • Aramini, Beatrice3
  • 1 Sulaiman Alrajhi University, Al-Qaseem, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , Al-Qaseem (Saudi Arabia)
  • 2 Sulaiman Alrajhi University, Al Bukairiyah, 51941, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , Al Bukairiyah (Saudi Arabia)
  • 3 University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy , Modena (Italy)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Publisher
Springer Nature America, Inc
Publication Date
Jan 09, 2020
Volume
11
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s13287-019-1548-7
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have successfully progressed to phase III clinical trials successive to an intensive in vitro and pre-clinical assessment in experimental animal models of ischemic myocardial injury. With scanty evidence regarding their cardiogenic differentiation in the recipient patients’ hearts post-engraftment, paracrine secretion of bioactive molecules is being accepted as the most probable underlying mechanism to interpret the beneficial effects of cell therapy. Secretion of small non-coding microRNA (miR) constitutes an integral part of the paracrine activity of stem cells, and there is emerging interest in miRs’ delivery to the heart as part of cell-free therapy to exploit their integral role in various cellular processes. MSCs also release membrane vesicles of diverse sizes loaded with a wide array of miRs as part of their paracrine secretions primarily for intercellular communication and to shuttle genetic material. Exosomes can also be loaded with miRs of interest for delivery to the organs of interest including the heart, and hence, exosome-based cell-free therapy is being assessed for cell-free therapy as an alternative to cell-based therapy. This review of literature provides an update on cell-free therapy with primary focus on exosomes derived from BM-derived MSCs for myocardial repair.

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