Nowadays, it is indicated that miRNA was anomaly expressed in tumour. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs can regulate the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cell-related processes. Meanwhile, current investigations show that RAB23 also plays an important role in cancer cell-related processes. But the potential mechanism remains unclear. SW579 cells were selected and transfected with miR-597-3p mimics. Then the expression of miR-597-3p and RAB23 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting, respectively. Subsequently, the abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of SW579 cells were researched. For further study, the Luciferase reporter assay proved that miR-597-3p could target the expression of RAB23, and the proteins of invasion and migration were also measured to clear the mechanism. After being transfected with miR-597-3p mimics, the expression of miR-597-3p was remarkably increased and RAB23 was significantly decreased. The abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration also decreased significantly. The miRTarase Database predicated and Luciferase reporter assay proved that RAB23 was the target gene of miR-597-3p. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and N-cadherin was down-regulated, and the expression of E-cadherin was up-regulated. miR-597-3p could reduce the proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of SW579 cells, which may be related to the targeted inhibition of RAB23 expression and down-regulation of the expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and N-cadherin proteins of SW579 cells.