This investigation examined the effects of the microRNA miR-34c-5p on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the mechanisms involved. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used to filter the chips, and the GEO2R software (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/geo2r/) was used to analyze the microarray data (GSE28100 and GSE45238). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to study the relationship between the expression of miR-34c-5p and the distant metastasis and pathological grade of OSCC. The correlation between TRIM29 (tripartite motif containing 29) expression and the malignant clinical phenotype of OSCC was also examined. The mRNA and protein expression levels of miR-34c-5p and TRIM29 were measured by real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of the human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines CAL-27 and Tca8113 was assessed by performing cell-counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, colony formation assays, transwell tests, wound scratch tests and flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter assays were used to predict the relationship between miR-34c-5p and TRIM29. A xenograft nude model was established and used to evaluate the effect of miR-34c-5p on tumor growth in female BALB/c mice. The expression of miR-34c-5p was significantly correlated with the proliferation, migration, and metastasis of OSCC. Overexpression of miR-34c-5p promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CAL-27 and Tca8113 cells, and suppressed their apoptosis. Inversely, low expression of miR-34c-5p suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CAL-27 and Tca8113 cells, and promoted their apoptosis. Overexpression of miR-34c-5p promoted tumor growth in the xenograft nude mice model. The expression of TRIM29 was related to malignant clinical phenotype of OSCC. Overexpression of TRIM29 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of CAL-27 and Tca8113 cell, and induced their apoptosis. TRIM29 knockout had just the opposite effect. Importantly, miR-34c-5p binds to TRIM29 and inhibited TRIM29 expression. MiR-34c-5p regulates the proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of OSCC through targeted binding of TRIM29. This may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with OSCC. 2021 Annals of Translational Medicine. All rights reserved.