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Minireview: Endocrine Disruptors: Past Lessons and Future Directions.

  • Schug, Thaddeus T1
  • Johnson, Anne F1
  • Birnbaum, Linda S1
  • Colborn, Theo1
  • Guillette, Louis J Jr1
  • Crews, David P1
  • Collins, Terry1
  • Soto, Ana M1
  • Vom Saal, Frederick S1
  • McLachlan, John A1
  • Sonnenschein, Carlos1
  • Heindel, Jerrold J1
  • 1 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institutes of Health (T.T.S., J.J.H.), Division of Extramural Research, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27560; 2MDB, Inc (A.F.J.), Durham, North Carolina 27713; National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (L.S.B.), National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709; The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (T.Colb.), Paonia, Colorado 81428; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (L.J.G.), Medical University of S Carolina, and Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, South Carolina 29425; Section of Integrative Biology (D.C.), University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712; Department of Chemistry (T.Coll.), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology (A.M.S., C.S.), Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02155; Division of Biological Sciences and Department (F.S.v.S.),University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211; and Department of Pharmacology (J.A.M.), Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118.
Published Article
Molecular Endocrinology
The Endocrine Society
Publication Date
Aug 01, 2016
DOI: 10.1210/me.2016-1096
PMID: 27477640


Within the past few decades, the concept of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has risen from a position of total obscurity to become a focus of dialogue, debate, and concern among scientists, physicians, regulators, and the public. The emergence and development of this field of study has not always followed a smooth path, and researchers continue to wrestle with questions about the low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses seen with EDCs, their biological mechanisms of action, the true pervasiveness of these chemicals in our environment and in our bodies, and the extent of their effects on human and wildlife health. This review chronicles the development of the unique, multidisciplinary field of endocrine disruption, highlighting what we have learned about the threat of EDCs and lessons that could be relevant to other fields. It also offers perspectives on the future of the field and opportunities to better protect human health.

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