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Minimum effective concentrations of formalin and sodium percarbonate on the free-living stages of an Australian isolate of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

  • Forwood, James M1
  • Harris, James O
  • Landos, Matt
  • Deveney, Marty R
  • 1 School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2001, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia, [email protected] , (Australia)
Published Article
Parasitology Research
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2014
DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-3987-5
PMID: 24948105


Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, a ciliate protozoan, is a common cosmopolitan parasite of freshwater teleosts and is a recurring problem during the summer months on Australian rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) farms. Preventative strategies include increasing water flow and filtration, but when an infection is established, chemical intervention is often required. Formalin (FOR) has been traditionally used on Australian trout farms as a treatment for I. multifiliis. Treatment using sodium percarbonate (SPC) that releases hydrogen peroxide when dissolved is being implemented on a number of farms. To assess anecdotal reports of low efficacy we evaluated 1 h exposures of FOR and SPC at 12 °C and 17 °C in both hard and soft water against free-living stages of I. multifiliis. Each free-living stage were exposed to FOR and SPC in vitro; theronts were exposed to 8, 16, 32 or 64 mg/l SPC or FOR every 15 min, for a maximum of 6 h, and the number of live theronts at each time point was recorded. Prototomonts and tomocysts were exposed to 64, 128, 256 and 512 mg/l SPC and 16, 32, 64 and 128 mg/l FOR for 1 h, incubated, with the percentage viability and the number of theronts produced recorded. Theronts were more sensitive to treatment than tomonts, and prototomonts were more sensitive to treatment than tomocysts. FOR and SPC killed all theronts within 15 min at 64 mg/l at both temperatures. FOR was effective against all prototomonts at ≥64 mg/l at both temperatures and was effective against all tomocysts at 128 mg/l at 17 °C but did not achieve complete mortality in any doses tested at 12 °C. SPC was effective against prototomonts and tomocysts at 64 m/l at 17 °C but required ≥256 mg/l at 12 °C. These results can be used to aid development of specific treatment strategies for the management of I. multifiliis on Australian rainbow trout farms.


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