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Minimization of Intraparenchymal Hemorrhagic Stroke Size by Optimization of Serum Lipids.

Authors
  • Krel, Mark1
  • Miulli, Dan E1
  • Jung, Henry2
  • Wiginton, James G 4th1
  • Brazdzionis, James1
  • Wacker, Margaret Rose3
  • Hoshek, Silvio3
  • Menoni, Rosalinda3
  • 1 Neurosurgery, Riverside University Health System Medical Center, Moreno Valley, USA.
  • 2 Neurosurgery, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.
  • 3 Neurosurgery, Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, Colton, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cureus
Publication Date
Apr 08, 2019
Volume
11
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.4406
PMID: 31245196
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Introduction Intraparenchymal hemorrhages (IPHs) are the most common type of hemorrhagic stroke. One of the main associated risk factors is total cholesterol (TC) above 200. A severely decreased level of TC potentially interferes with the stabilization of the cell membrane and can potentially lead to a larger hemorrhage. Previous population-based studies have confirmed an association between low TCs and a high incidence of hemorrhagic stroke. It has been established that a TC below 200 decreases the potential for cardiovascular disease. This study suggests that the balance that needs to be achieved between these two extremes presents a unique possibility for an optimal therapeutic range of total cholesterol levels. Materials & methods Inclusion criteria included all adult patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9/10 code for hemorrhagic stroke, from June 2007 to June 2017. A total of 300 patients met the criteria (N=300). For each patient, the following data were collected: NIH Stroke Scale, TC level, triglyceride level, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol reducing medications, size of hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) of the head, location of hemorrhage, and patient disposition. Statistical analysis was done using the Generalized Linear Modeling with Wald Chi-square as the statistical determinant. Results Intracerebral hemorrhage size is dependent on the intracranial location with brain lobes having larger bleeds. Minimum hemorrhage size was noted in TC 188-196 and this effect was statistically significant independent of location. HDL has a significant independent effect on hemorrhage size with overall minimum bleed occurring in the range of 43-51 mg/dL HDL (98-106 mg/dL for men and 43-51 mg/dL for women). This sex effect within HDL on hemorrhage size is statistically significant. There was a differential effect of HDL dependent on patient race. Asian and black patients had least IPH volume with HDL 70-79 mg/dL, while Hispanic patients had a minimum at 43-51 mg/dL. White patients required a higher HDL, 80-88 mg/dL to minimize the IPH size. The triglyceride level had a statistically significant independent effect on the bleed size with the minimum hemorrhage size occurring in the range of 205-224 mg/dL. This effect was nuanced by patient race with statistically significant minimum IPH size occurring at 144-164 mg/dL for white patients, 124-143 mg/dL for Hispanic and black patients, and 84-103 mg/dL for Asian patients. Post-hospital patient disposition was not significantly affected by any of the above predictor variables. Conclusion This study found TC, HDL and triglycerides in specific ranges are associated with significantly decreased hemorrhage size across all genders and hemorrhage locations. The ranges with the strongest hemorrhage-limiting effect are as follows: TC 188-196 mg/dL, HDL 43-51 mg/dL (98-106 mg/dL for men and 43-51 mg/dL for women), triglycerides 205-224 mg/dL. Lipids both below and above these ranges yield larger bleeds. It also found larger brain areas will have more extensive hemorrhage than smaller brain areas. Future work in this arena should include collaboration with cardiology to determine ideal ranges for both cardio- and neuroprotection as well as a prospective study to validate the applicability of these findings in patient care.

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