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Miniemulsion polymerization based on in situ surfactant formation without high-energy homogenization: effects of organic acid and counter ion

  • Guo, Y
  • Teo, VL
  • Ting, S
  • Zetterlund, PB
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2012
UTS Institutional Repository
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Miniemulsion polymerization of styrene based on the in situ surfactant-generation technique has been investigated for a range of carboxylic acids and counterions. This technique relies on in situ formation of the surfactant at the oil-water interface and circumvents the use of traditional high-energy mixing (for example, ultrasonication) for generation of the initial miniemulsion. Miniemulsion polymerizations have been conducted successfully using the carboxylic acids lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid, respectively. Coagulation/phase separation was not observed and the number-average particle diameters were <100?nm. The counterions K+, Na+ and Li+ were investigated in combination with five different carboxylic acids (all permutations), revealing that satisfactory miniemulsion formation/stability could only be obtained with K+. Results of miniemulsion polymerizations conducted in the presence of an aqueous-phase radical scavenger were consistent with predominant monomer droplet nucleation. Use of the corresponding preformed surfactants added to the aqueous phase, without high-energy mixing, did not result in sufficiently stable initial (before polymerization) miniemulsions.

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