Miniemulsion polymerization of styrene based on the in situ surfactant-generation technique has been investigated for a range of carboxylic acids and counterions. This technique relies on in situ formation of the surfactant at the oil-water interface and circumvents the use of traditional high-energy mixing (for example, ultrasonication) for generation of the initial miniemulsion. Miniemulsion polymerizations have been conducted successfully using the carboxylic acids lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid, respectively. Coagulation/phase separation was not observed and the number-average particle diameters were <100?nm. The counterions K+, Na+ and Li+ were investigated in combination with five different carboxylic acids (all permutations), revealing that satisfactory miniemulsion formation/stability could only be obtained with K+. Results of miniemulsion polymerizations conducted in the presence of an aqueous-phase radical scavenger were consistent with predominant monomer droplet nucleation. Use of the corresponding preformed surfactants added to the aqueous phase, without high-energy mixing, did not result in sufficiently stable initial (before polymerization) miniemulsions.