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Histamine Intolerance in Children: A Narrative Review.

Authors
  • Nazar, Wojciech1
  • Plata-Nazar, Katarzyna2
  • Sznurkowska, Katarzyna2
  • Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka2
  • 1 Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 2 Department of Paediatrics, Gastroenterology, Allergology and Paediatric Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Nowe Ogrody 1-6, 80-803 Gdańsk, Poland. , (Poland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nutrients
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Apr 28, 2021
Volume
13
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/nu13051486
PMID: 33924863
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Histamine intolerance is defined as a disequilibrium of accumulated histamine and the capacity for histamine degradation. This clinical term addresses a non-immunologically mediated pathology when histamine ingested with food is not particularly high, however its degradation is decreased. This paper aims to provide a narrative review on etiopathology, epidemiology, possible diagnostic algorithms and diagnostic challenges of histamine intolerance in children. The clinical picture of histamine intolerance in children is similar to that observed in adults apart from male predominance found in paediatric patients. Both in children and adults, a histamine-reduced diet is typically the treatment of choice. Diamine oxidase supplementation offers another treatment option. There is no symptom or test pathognomonic for histamine intolerance. Nevertheless, manifestations of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, measurements of diamine oxidase deficits, positive results of histamine provocation tests and improvement in symptoms with histamine-reduced diet considerably increase the probability of histamine intolerance diagnosis. These factors have been included in the proposed diagnostic algorithm for histamine intolerance. In children histamine intolerance most likely co-occurs with allergies and bowel diseases, which creates an additional diagnostic challenge. As the evidence for children is poor further research is needed the determine epidemiology, validate diagnostic algorithms and establish possible treatment options regarding histamine intolerance.

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