ObjectivesHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an inflammation-related malignancy and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) predisposes to HCC. Microvesicles (MVs) transfer various bioactive molecules including microRNA (miRNA) between cells and exert biological functions. The purpose of this study was to detect CHB-MV and HCC-MV miRNAs and analyze the expression profiles and functional roles between CHB and HCC.MethodsWe examined MV miRNA profiles of CHB and HCC using miRNA microarrays. TargetScan, PicTar and miRanda were exerted to predict target genes regulating these differentially expressed miRNAs.ResultsA total of 272 and 242 aberrant fluctuation miRNAs were identified in CHB-MVs and HCC-MVs, respectively. Among them, there were 53 miRNAs co-expressing both in CHB-MVs and HCC-MVs. These miRNAs affected cellular apoptosis, proliferation and molecular signaling pathways. Among them, 25 co-expressed MV miRNAs targeted 21 inflammatory factors and these miRNAs may be a tight linkage between CHB and HCC. Interestingly, there were 14 co-expressed MV miRNAs targeting 17 oncogenes and 7 miRNAs targeting 9 tumor suppressors in the study. In addition, MVs were enriched with maladjusted miRNAs regulating zinc finger proteins and chromosome open reading frame. Those MV miRNAs may play roles in CHB developing to HCC.ConclusionsWe demonstrated that CHB and HCC displayed aberrantly co-expressed MV miRNA profiles for the first time, which may have a link between CHB and HCC. Those MV miRNAs may serve as early biomarkers for HCC and may aid to promote CHB developing to HCC.