Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) is a common pathophysiological change that occurs in various diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), heart failure, dementia, and depression. Recent technical advances have enabled noninvasive measurement and quantification of microvascular changes in humans. In this paper, we describe the protocols of the microvascular measurements applied in the Maastricht Study, an ongoing prospective, population-based cohort study of persons aged 40-75 years being carried out in the southern part of the Netherlands (baseline data assessment, November 2010-January 2020). The study includes a variety of noninvasive measurements in skin, retina, brain, and sublingual tissue, as well as plasma and urine biomarker assessments. Following this, we summarize our main findings involving these microvascular measurements through the end of 2018. Finally, we provide a brief perspective on future microvascular investigations within the framework of the Maastricht Study. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.