Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with perturbed mitochondria function and alpha-synuclein fibrillization. We evaluated potential mechanistic links between mitochondrial dysfunction and alpha-synuclein aggregation. We studied a PD cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell line in which platelet mitochondria from a PD subject were transferred to NT2 neuronal cells previously depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA. Compared to a control cybrid cell line, the PD line showed reduced ATP levels, an increased free/polymerized tubulin ratio, and alpha-synuclein oligomer accumulation. Taxol (which stabilizes microtubules) normalized the PD tubulin ratio and reduced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. A nexus exists between mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton homeostasis, and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. In our model, mitochondrial dysfunction triggers an increased free tubulin, which destabilizes the microtubular network and promotes alpha-synuclein oligomerization.