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Microstructural and heavy metal analysis of gallstones prevalent in Jharkhand and its implications in the treatment.

Authors
  • Sharma, Bhavna1
  • Sharma, Shubha Rani1
  • 1 Department of Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India. , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Postgraduate medicine
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2023
Volume
135
Issue
3
Pages
296–311
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/00325481.2022.2139973
PMID: 36317754
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

In the present study the structural and compositional analysis of gallstones was carried out by various characterization techniques. Also, the utility of the study was evaluated on how the findings can enhance the treatment and dissolution therapies of gallstones? Gallstones from the Jharkhand region were analyzed both structurally as well as chemically using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Carbon hydrogen and nitrogen analyzer (CHNS), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and other instruments. The content of heavy metal was represented statistically as a mean with standard deviation. FESEM analysis unveiled the crystal and globular structure of cholesterol and pigment gallstones respectively. Through ICP-OES analysis metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn etc. were detected in gallstones. FTIR and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of cholesterol and calcium carbonate and other compounds in mixed stones and calcium bilirubinate and bilirubin in pigment gallstones. NMR analysis revealed the presence of monohydrate cholesterol (Crystalline) in Cholesterol and mixed gallstones. Mixed gallstones were found to be predominant in this region in contrast to pigmented stones that were prevalent earlier. The present study uncovered the current composition and content of different heavy metals in gallstones of Jharkhand region which can be instrumental in enhancing the dissolution therapies for gallstone treatment. This can serve as a major tool for practitioners for gallstone treatment and change the way they are looked at.

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