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MicroRNAs as the critical regulators of cell migration and invasion in thyroid cancer

Authors
  • Hamidi, Amir Abbas
  • Taghehchian, Negin
  • Basirat, Zahra
  • Zangouei, Amir Sadra
  • Moghbeli, Meysam
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biomarker Research
Publisher
BioMed Central
Publication Date
Jun 04, 2022
Volume
10
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s40364-022-00382-4
PMID: 35659780
PMCID: PMC9167543
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

Thyroid cancer (TC) is one of the most frequent endocrine malignancies that is more common among females. Tumor recurrence is one of the most important clinical manifestations in differentiated TC which is associated with different factors including age, tumor size, and histological features. Various molecular processes such as genetic or epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs are also involved in TC progression and metastasis. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important biological process during tumor invasion and migration that affects the initiation and transformation of early-stage tumors into invasive malignancies. A combination of transcription factors, growth factors, signaling pathways, and epigenetic regulations affect the thyroid cell migration and EMT process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important molecular factors involved in tumor metastasis by regulation of EMT-activating signaling pathways. Various miRNAs are involved in the signaling pathways associated with TC metastasis which can be used as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers. Since, the miRNAs are sensitive, specific, and non-invasive, they can be suggested as efficient and optimal biomarkers of tumor invasion and metastasis. In the present review, we have summarized all of the miRNAs which have been significantly involved in thyroid tumor cells migration and invasion. We also categorized all of the reported miRNAs based on their cellular processes to clarify the molecular role of miRNAs during thyroid tumor cell migration and invasion. This review paves the way of introducing a non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic panel of miRNAs in aggressive and metastatic TC patients.

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