Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression has been investigated in gastric cancer, which is one of the most common malignancies. However, the roles of miRNAs in gastric cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that microRNA-372 (miR-372) directly targets tumor necrosis factor, α-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1), and is involved in the regulation of the NFκB signaling pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of TNFAIP1 induced changes in AGS cells similar to those in AGS cells treated with miR-372-ASO. Collectively, these findings demonstrate an oncogenic role for miR-372 in controlling cell growth and apoptosis through downregulation of TNFAIP1. This novel molecular basis provides new insights into the etiology of gastric cancer.